Each Sector is a 14x14 square grid, where each tile is a Location. You can check it's coordinates by passing the mouse over it.
In order to travel to the next Sector, you need to plan a path near a border of a Sector: a "Go to the next Sector" window will pop above your map.
For further information, click the "?" and "Show Legend" buttons in game.
Path planning can only be done in a straight line or diagonally: the game won't make you "turn" automatically.
During travel, your Salvaging skill level will be used as a passive skill to determine if you recovered Materials or Items in your trip (check your Log by clicking the Date/time or the suspension points above the map).
When traveling, you can encounter some random events: to check if something happens, check if a "E" appears next to the "Run" button, then switch to the Location screen (it can happen everytime you go through a tile).
Be careful of the Bosses who roam the map and other players who can attack you (and by winning, steal some of your stuff).